This irrigation is transforming the lives of millions of farmers across the world, enabling higher yields to be produced from any land,
while saving water, fertilizer, and energy. It is sometimes called trickle irrigation and involves dripping water onto the soil at very low
rates (2-20 liters/hour) from a system of small diameter plastic pipes fitted with outlets called emitters or drippers. It is the most
efficient water and nutrient delivery system for growing crops. It delivers water and nutrients directly to the plant’s roots zone, in
the right amounts, at the right time, so each plant gets exactly what it needs, when it needs it, to grow optimally. Water is applied
close to plants so that only part of the soil in which the roots grow is wetted, unlike surface and sprinkler irrigation, which involves
wetting the whole soil profile. With drip irrigation water, applications are more frequent (usually every 1-3 days) than with other
methods and this provides a very favorable high moisture level in the soil in which plants can flourish.
Drip irrigation system delivers water to the crop using a network of mainlines, sub-mains and lateral lines with emission points spaced along their
lengths. Each dripper/emitter, orifice supplies a measured, precisely controlled uniform application of water, nutrients, and other required growth
substances directly into the root zone of the plant. Water and nutrients enter the soil from the emitters, moving into the root zone of the plants through
the combined forces of gravity and capillary. In this way, the plant’s withdrawal of moisture and nutrients are replenished almost immediately, ensuring
that the plant never suffers from water stress, thus enhancing quality, its ability to achieve optimum growth and high yield.